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The stratigraphy of an archaeological site can be used to date, or refine the date, of particular activities ("contexts") on that site.
Thus, from the oldest to the youngest, all archaeological sites are likely to be dated by an appropriate method.
Dating is very important in archaeology for constructing models of the past, as it relies on the integrity of dateable objects and samples.
Many disciplines of archaeological science are concerned with dating evidence, but in practice several different dating techniques must be applied in some circumstances, thus dating evidence for much of an archaeological sequence recorded during excavation requires matching information from known absolute or some associated steps, with a careful study of stratigraphic relationships.
This principle states that in a sequence of undisturbed sedimentary layers or lava flows, the oldest layers are at the bottom.
The law of superposition is an axiom that forms one of the bases of the sciences of geology, archaeology, and other fields dealing with geological stratigraphy.